Filmmaking Crew Positions: Types of Roles in Film & TV Production

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Filmmaking Crew Positions: Types of Roles in Film & TV Production

Filmmaking crew positions are numerous and the types of roles in Film & TV Production can be baffling when you’re taking your first steps into larger productions. But it’s important to understand the function of each crew member’s role, how they fit into what you are doing, and have awareness of film crew hierarchy.

Creating a filmmaking jobs list isn’t easy, and not just because there are so many types of roles in film & TV production. Some film industry roles have several different terms for the same job, and many people involved with film making combine two roles into one because finance or other issues require it. However, this page should get you started.


Let’s quickly begin by explaining the above-the-line and below-the-line items when it comes to the budget for cast and crew.

Script and story writers, producers, directors, actors, and casting are all in the top sheet of the production costs budget document, which gives a high level picture of the allocated budget within. They are above-the-line items. It includes all taxes, insurance and any production incentives. 

Everyone other than script and story writers, producers, directors, actors, and casting are deemed as below-the-line, even if they are in the same department. Their roles begin in pre-production, production, or post-production as required.

Financing Team

All professional filming requires serious amounts of money, whether it’s for the Movies, TV, Commercials, or even top level film festival shorts. The wider the potential audience, the more money is required to pay for lead acting names, larger cast and crew, and distribution costs.

It’s a complex area too complicated to detail here, but the important role of the financier should not be forgotten when discussing filmmaking crews, even if individuals are rarely credited for their important role in getting projects greenlit.

The Director

The Director is the creative head of a Production, but does so much more than standing on set telling people how to act. Working closely with the Producer through fundraising, pre-production, filming, and post-production, the Director has a vision of how the finished production will look, and chooses the Heads of Department to pull together the complex network of people and resources needed to make the plans a reality within budget.

Production Department


The Film Producer or Television Producer is the top manager making the project happen. They get the money in, find the Heads of Department, work with casting to secure bankable names, authorise department budgets, manage deadlines, and run the business side of the production so the director can concentrate on the creative side.

Executive Producer

Also referred to as a showrunner, the Executive Producer is the leading producer for a production. They often come into the role as a creator and/or writer, or through the route of having been a creator and/or writer.

Line Producer

The Line Producer works with the UPM to draw up the detailed budget for the production, and records all expenses in detail. 

The Line Manager and the UPM can be the same person, in which case they’ll often be known as the Line Producer. But where both a Line Producer and a UPM are hired, the Line Producer will often be the senior of the two.

Line Managers have often worked their way up through the Production Department.

Unit Production Manager

The Unit Production Manager (UPM) draws up the detailed production costs schedule before principal photography begins, and keeps the production within budget by working with Department Heads, with the assistance of the Line Producer. The Producer agrees on big ticket items for above-the-line expenditure, while the UPM focuses on a wide range of detailed negotiations and decisions across the production.

UPMs have often worked their way up through the AD Department. 

Production Coordinator

Reporting to the UPM and supervising Production Assistant staff, the Production Coordinator fulfils a wide range of financial and human resource duties to keep the production running and within budget.

Associate Producer

The Associate Producer, or AP, is a producer who assists a more senior producer. They undertake a wide range of duties, from helping with scripts, to assisting in some of the editing organisation.

Production Secretary

The Production Secretary takes care of organising and processing day to day paperwork, including contracts and letters, script changes, and organising travel and accommodation. Don’t be fooled by the name, it is not an entry level job and requires film production experience.

Production Accountant

The Set Accountant, or Production Accountant, makes sure everyone gets paid the correct amount in a timely manner for their services on a TV or film production, and quickly produces accurate financial reports for the Producers.

Payroll Assistant

The Payroll Assistant makes sure everyone gets paid the correct amount at the correct time. Productions pay a lot of self-employed people, in accordance with employment and tax laws, so it’s a role requiring attention to detail and good record keeping and communication skills. 

Entertainment Lawyer

Media productions can be expensive and complicated businesses. Everything from cast and crew contracts to insurance and copyright issues requires legal oversight and negotiation.

Office PA

The Office PA, or Production Assistant, is an entry level job supporting the production team with administrative and practical tasks. It is everything from answering the phone to take messages, to driving a 500 mile return journey to pick up a principal actor’s forgotten passport (yep).

AD Department

1st Assistant Director

The 1st Assistant, or 1st AD, breaks down the script and, working with the director, director of photography and other heads of department, uses it to create the filming schedule. They also have many other duties to support the Director, such as calling for quiet when the next take is ready, and dealing with set logistics.

2nd Assistant Director

Supporting the 1st AD, the 2nd Assistant Director, or 2nd AD as they are called, issues the call sheets and gets the cast and extras to the right location on the right days and time.

3rd Assistant Director

The 3rd Assistant Director, known as the 3rd AD, works with the 1st AD and 2nd AD to organise the movement of actors and extras, and supervising Production Assistants.

Set PA

Known as a Set PA, Floor Runner or just Runner, the Production Assistant on set works with the Director, Editor, and Heads of Department to fulfil a range of duties required by the individual production and the people involved. They can be located in one area of the production, allocated to one department, or used across the production set. They need great communication skills, and are on their feet all day.

Often unpaid students and volunteers seeking work within the film industry, good runners make the tea, get the public out of the vicinity, tell people where to go (in a good way), and do anything they are asked to with a cheerful smile and no delay.

Script Department

The Script Department plans, develops, writes and edits the screenplay or script for film or TV productions. They work in collaboration with other departments and throughout the production, to adjust for changes in budget, weather conditions or creative choices.

Script Writer

A Script Writer, also known as a Screenwriter, is brought in by the Production Department or Script Editor at pre-production, but usually works until all their allocated scenes have been wrapped because ongoing editing is a large part of their role.

Script Editor

The Script Editor reads, reviews and improves a screenplay or script. They work closely with the script writer(s) and may have even hired them. But they also collaborate with the director, producer and art department, allowing the screenwriter to concentrate on writing.

Script Supervisor

The script supervisor, also known as Continuity Supervisor, or Script, maintains continuity throughout the production, working with actors and the art department throughout and taking notes to assist editing.

Assistant Script Editor

The Assistant Script Editor supports the Script Department with maintaining continuity, keeping detailed notes, and liaising with other departments on set.

Trainee Script Editors

Some production companies offer traineeships to aspiring script editors. Competition is tough and trainee script editors are almost always university graduates.

Casting Department

Casting Director

The Casting Director is an experienced casting professional who gets the best talent in each role for the budget allocated. They work closely with the Director and Producer to choose talent, and agree how to distribute the casting budget.

Casting Associate

The Casting Associate assists the Casting Director by choosing actors to audition, running and filming casting sessions, and suggesting actors for recall.

Casting Assistant

The Casting Assistant helps the casting team with administrative duties in the office and practical support at casting sessions.


OK, Cast aren’t film crew, but you’ll meet them on set during filming. So let’s quickly cover who they are.

Principal Cast

Principal cast are the lead roles whose names can greenlight a production. Actors at the top of the profession have bankable names which are even drawn up into lists of estimated value. Their involvement with a production determines the level of funding, which decides if it goes ahead or not.

Supporting Cast

All the other actors are auditioned for a role, usually having to attend a recall before they are chosen.

Actors are represented by Acting Agencies, who submit their profiles to Casting teams for suitable advertised roles, arrange their fees, and chase up payment for work done.


Film and television productions with music in them often require professionally trained dancers. 

Like actors, dancers are represented by agencies.


The Choreographer arranges dance routines for screen dancers, and teaches them the dance routines. For Musical Theatre feature films, this can be a substantial period of work.

Featured Extras

Featured extras are non-speaking performers in a production who are paid more than the other Background Artists, because they have a special role in one scene or more. It can be anything from an angry shopkeeper raising their fist at lead actors running away, a passerby attracting the notice of the lead actor because of something they are wearing, or the person who gets in the way to stop the lead actor getting where they need to be.

Background Artistes

Background Artistes, also known as Supporting Artistes or Extras, move about in the background to make the scene realistic. They do not have interaction with the actor or plot.

Locations Department

Location Manager

The Location Manager works with the Director and Production team to identify the range and types of locations needed in the script. Once locations have been identified, they work with the local authority on road closures and emergency planning. They secure property rentals from homeowners and other bodies to get the location looking ready for production. Sometimes that involves repainting buildings and premises, or covering a pavement in mud and straw, and then getting the location back to its original state after filming.

Location Scout

The Location Scout visits a range of locations to take photographs and notes, and have prospective conversations with property owners. Then they work with the Locations Manager to secure chosen locations.

Location Trainee

The Location trainee helps get a location physically ready for filming, acting as traffic and pedestrian marshals to keep the public away. They also pick up stray litter or anything else that should not be in the shot.

Camera Department

Director of Photography

The Cinematographer in charge of the Camera Department is called the Director of Photography, or DoP. Their job is to work with the Director, Heads of Department and camera crew to plan and execute each take in line with the Director’s vision.

Camera Operator

The Camera Operator uses a variety of film cameras, as specified by the storyboard and Director’s instructions, to record the images on film.

Focus Puller

Also known as the 1st Assistant Camera or 1st AC, the Focus Puller works alongside the Camera Operator as a camera assistant to manually control the focus of the camera lens by reference to the distance between the camera and the subject, while the Camera Operator looks through the lense at their shot.

Clapper Loader

Also known as 2nd Assistant Camera or 2nd AC, the Clapper Loader helps change lenses and filters, loads camera magazines, maintaining paperwork for the department and, of course, operating the clapperboard at the start of each take. They get the footage to the DIT.

Camera Trainee

Supporting the Camera Department, the Camera Trainee builds up knowledge and experience of the skills required on set, before moving up to the next level.


The Digital Imaging Technicians, or DIT, both works with the DoP for on set digital imaging technology and colour grading on the dailies, and is the liaison between on set production and postproduction editors. Sometimes an onset film editor is used instead of DIT.

Video Assist Crew

Video Assist Operator

Also known as the video playback operator, video split operator and VTR, the Video Assist Operator sets up monitors for the Director and other key crew to watch captured images between takes.

Video Assist Assistant

The Video Assist Trainee assists the Video Assist Operator during production.

Video Assist Trainee

The Video Assist Trainee assists the Video Assist Crew doing simple tasks and building experience.

Electric Department


The Gaffer is the Chief Lighting Technician, working closely with the Director and Director of Photography to understand, plan and implement the lighting effects they need for each scene. They arrange the people and equipment needed on set for each lighting setup, and monitor the department’s budget and expenditure.

Best Boy Electric

Assistant to the Gaffer, the Best Boy Electric is essentially the foreman of the Electrical Department. Despite the terminology, it’s not a role exclusively for men.

Electrical Lighting Technician

The Electrical Lighting Technician (ELT) or Rigging Electrical Lighting Technician (RLT), places and focuses on set lighting according to the plans and instructions of the Gaffer and Cinematographer. Other jobs such as changing light colours, acting as follow spot operator, or creating special effects with lighting also fall within their remit. They also get the rest of the site wired up so trailers and supporting services have safe and reliable power and light.

Generator Operator

When out on location, it is normally difficult to access adequate power outlets for all the requirements of a production’s cast, crew and equipment. This is something the Gaffer checks in pre-production. So a Generator Operator is brought in to safely run the generator and ensure the power supplies remain constant throughout filming.

Grip Department

Key Grip

The Key Grip runs the Grip Department, working with the Gaffer to make sure the set has the facilities, people and equipment needed to fulfil the lighting and electric requirements of the Director and Director of Photography. They also identify where plans need to be altered, and monitor the department’s budget and expenditure.

Best Boy Grip

Assistant to the Key Grip, the Best Boy Grip is effectively the foreman for the Grip Department. Despite the terminology, it’s not a role exclusively for men.


The Grips do the setting up, rigging, and strike of all equipment needed to lift or hoise other equipment, such as the camera rigs and lighting cabling.

Dolly Grip

The Dolly Grip sets up, moves and dismantles the Camera Dolly, which is a wheeled rig to smoothly move a film camera and camera operator. Dolly grips are trained for this specialised role.

Grip Trainee

The Grip Trainee is learning the trade of being a grip, by assisting on simpler tasks under the direction of the Grip.

OnSet Sound Department

This section looks at the Sound Department film crew positions you’ll find on set. For the extensive work that the Sound Department does in post-production, see the section further down this page.

Production Sound Mixer

The Production Sound Mixer oversees the work of the Sound Department crew on set and on location, capturing, mixing and balancing audio during production and trying to eliminate audio disturbances from the recordings.

Boom Operator

The Boom Operator records the dialogue of actors on set by holding a boom microphone close enough to pick up clear sound, but out of shot so the audience doesn’t even glimpse it. They assist the production sound mixer.

Sound Assistant

Supporting the Production Sound Mixer and Boom Operator on set, the Sound Assistant, also known as the Utility Sound Technician, unloads and sets up sound equipment, checks items are working, quickly resolves equipment problems, starts packing up on the Abby Singer shot and loads after the Martini Shot.

Art Department

Production Designer

The Production Designer heads up the art department, bringing the Director’s visual concepts to life for each and every shot, and within budget and timescale.

Art Director

The liaison between Production Designer and Construction, the film Art Director gets the Production Designer’s plans put in place. On set they can also be known as Supervising Art Director, Standby Art Director, or on set Art Director.

Art Department Trainee

The Art Department Trainee is given a variety of jobs to assist the department during filming, such as helping implement sudden requests or changes to the set. Sometimes they may be called Set Dresser Trainee, or other terms to denote specific duties.

Previsualization Artist

Before filming begins, the Previsualization Artist takes the script and creates a storyboard from it, digitally or with charcoal sketches, sometimes making replica models. It strips down a scene to see what shots are needed, and whether they would work. 

Set Decorator

The Set Decorator works with the Production Designer and other Heads of Department to plan the look of each set, including the furniture, ornaments and other household items, and then sources those items. 

Set Dresser

Under instruction from the Set Decorator, the Set Dresser arranges furniture and props on set so that the scene accurately reflects the Director’s vision of the fictional world, enhancing the audience’s understanding of the people, world and events on screen. They complete the set dressing before the cast and crew start shooting.

On Set Dresser

During filming, changes might need to be made in the set dressing. Or, items get changed during filming, and must be returned to their original place for the next take, and the one after that etc. So the on set dresser stands on set during filming, and between takes makes adjustments to the set dressing as required.

Prop Master

The Prop Master, or Property Master sources, uses and controls the movable Props needed by the Set Dresser on a TV or film production. They must keep track of all items all of the time, and make sure items are available as soon as they are needed, through the use of inventory lists and careful checks to production schedules. The Prop Master sources items commercially, or via carpenters, artists and prop makers.

Production Buyer

Sometimes known as the Shopper, the Production Buyer identifies all the props needed, using the script. They then purchase or hire items, using the production schedules to arrange deliveries and returns. 

Movie Armorer

Also known as weapons wrangler, armorer, weapons specialist, weapons handler, weapons wrangler, or weapons coordinator, movie armorers are responsible for all firearms and blank ammunition on set. They control the movement and safety of all items and their use, to protect all cast and crew.

Weapon Creators

Weapon creators are called the weapons master, but can also be known as the armorer, weapons specialist, weapons handler, weapons wrangler, or weapons coordinator. They’ll make everything from knives and spears, to swords and guns, though they may have expertise in a historical period or particular weapons.

Set Construction

Part of the Art Department, the Set Construction team works closely with the Art Director to bring to life the set designed by the Production Designer.

Construction Manager

The Construction Manager oversees the set construction processes and supervises all the Set Construction teams, ensuring the Art Director’s instructions are correctly carried out.


Constructing a set requires high quality carpentry skills, because the set must be solid and safe, yet recede into the background to create a believable setting, or be unique and unusual, yet be as cost efficient as possible. 


The chargehand painters, scenic artists and standby painters decorate the set floors, walls, doors and other important items, to create the setting required for the scene.

Art PA

The Art PA, or Art Department’s Personal Assistant, does a wide variety of support jobs and errands throughout the production, and helps with small jobs to free up time for experienced staff to concentrate on more complex tasks.

Hair & Makeup Departments

Hair and Makeup Designer

The Hair and Makeup Designer, also known as the Key Makeup Artist, is Head of Hair & Makeup, being the chief makeup artist designing the visual looks for actors and extras within the creative vision of the Director. They work with the DoP on test shots to make sure the camera picks up the right look for the production. During production, they work on complex and principal actor makeup to ensure continuity, and check the department staff meets their brief each day.

MakeUp Artist

The makeup artist takes the creative brief given by the Key Makeup Artist and faithfully reproduces it onto each actor or extra allocated to them. That can be everything from simple powder to dull the glare from lights, to complicated facial bruises and scars which must be positioned and realistically shaded for every take to maintain visual continuity.

Hair Stylist

The Hair Stylist designs and executes hair, extension and wig styling in accordance with the creative brief. It can include colouring and cutting hair.

Make-Up and/or Hair Assistants

Hair and Makeup Assistants are learning the trade so do simple hair and makeup tasks under the supervision of the relevant artist or key artist. That can include locating and providing equipment, preparing the performer’s skin for makeup, through to makeup application for extras and less complex visuals.

Special Effects Makeup Designer

Because Special Effects can be complex and demand specialist skills, a production could require a Special Effects Makeup Designer, or SPFX Makeup Designer. In addition to creating and developing the initial design, they will work on principal cast requiring their skills, and supervise any Special Effects Makeup Artists working on other cast members.

Special Effects Make-Up Artist

The Special Effects Makeup Artist finds work across horror, thrillers, sci-fi and documentary recreations. They bring aliens and monsters to life, usually with the help of prosthetics. But they also realistically recreate new and aging injuries to character faces and bodies, with precise skill based on scientific and artistic knowledge.

Prosthetics Designer

The Prosthetics artist creates convincing stunt doubles, or changes the facial and body shape of the actors to make them look like someone, or something, else.

Prosthetics Artist

Some are lab technicians who work in pre production, while others are on set working with Special Effects Makeup Artists.

Special Effects Department

The Special Effects Department is responsible for the illusions and visual tricks used live on set during filming. Effects applied during post-production are called Visual Effects, and are part of a different team.

Special Effects Supervisor

Also known as a Special Effects Director, Special Effects Coordinator or SFX Supervisor, the Special Effects Supervisor is in charge of the Special Effects team. They are responsible for delivering the live onset special effects needed to create the visual impact requested by the Director and Producers, using mechanized props, special effects makeup, props, scenery, scale models, pyrotechnics and atmospheric effects such as fog or rain.

Special Effects Technician

The Special Effects Technician has a wide range of special effects skills, but may be particularly talented in one area, such as modelling or mechanics. They work on projects allocated by the SFX Supervisor.

Costume and Wardrobe Department

Costume Designer

The Costume Designer creates the overall look of the costumes on set, making each item and the collective whole visually bring the story to life. Working with the Director, Producers, Writers, the Production Designer and the Hair & Makeup Designer, they create mood boards, design costumes for each scene, and then create or hire each required outfit. They are on set throughout the production to make last minute changes.

Wardrobe Supervisor

Working with the Costume Designer and managing the Wardrobe team, the Wardrobe Supervisor runs the wardrobe area during a production, getting people and items where they need to be when they are needed, and organising or doing alterations and fixes as necessary.

Set Costumer

Assisting the Costumer Designer, the set costumer manages continuity of costumes on set, whether it’s for principal actors or thousands of extras. They set up the correct outfits in actors’ trailers, help with dressing if needed, take photographs and notes, and make sure everyone is wearing the correct and full costume for each take.

Costume Coordinator

The Costume Coordinator arranges the transportation of all costumes to and from set, having identified every item’s need from the script breakdown and production schedules. Then they check everything is suitable and prepared for use.


The tailor, seamstress, stitcher and/or sewer will create the bespoke items designed by the Costume Designer. They’ll have top rate sewing skills, and can execute very complicated designs using difficult materials and unusual patterns.

Stunts Department

Stunt Coordinator

The Stunt Coordinator is in charge of the Stunts Department. Using the Script and in collaboration with the Director, DoP and Production team, the range and budget for stunts is identified. They design the stunts accordingly, hire in the stunt performers and arrange the safety measures.

Stunt Performer

The stunt performer has specialist stunt skills driving cars or bikes, riding horses, using fire or water, jumping from stunt explosions or falling from great heights. They act as a double for principal actors, filmed carefully not to show their face or other features which give the switch away. Male stunt performers still often dress as female principals, but in recent years the industry has welcomed many more female stunt performers.

Set Medic

A Set Medic is there to support stunt performers as they undertake dangerous jobs, and to care for the cast and crew on set. Filming involves a lot of electrical cables and heavy electrical equipment, various weather conditions, muddy fields, moving vehicles, and people with a variety of medical conditions, allergies, and clumsiness.

Craft Service & Catering Departments

Craft Services

Craft Services is hot drinks and snacks, available to the cast and crew throughout the day. Craft Services stations are either attended by individuals to prepare the drinks, or intermittently supervised by someone refilling a hot drink flask so people can help themselves.


Catering services provide hot meals, usually at breakfast time and lunch time. They prepare three or more dishes for each day, to accommodate cast and crew members with allergies or food preferences. 

Each caterer must have food safety certification, as poor hygiene practices and lack of awareness of allergies can cause serious consequences to individuals and the production.


Security Manager

A Security Manager, or Head Usher, attends pre-production meetings to assess the security requirements to keep all the people, vehicles and film equipment safe in each location. They determine the number of security staff required, negotiate the security budget, and hire vetted security staff for the agreed days and times.

Security Staff

Given the value of film equipment, the fame of principal actors and top directors, and local interest in any nearby filming, Security Staff need to be on and around set locations 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, from the early hours on the first day right through to late at night after the location wrap.

Transportation Department

Transportation Coordinator

Head of Transportation, the Transportation Coordinator, also known as Transportation Captain, ensures there are enough drivers available each day to get the equipment, cast and crew where they need to be without wasting the budget. As people arrive and leave film sets at different times of the day, and film takes can take place at a number of nearby locations, the Transportation Captain plans each session carefully to use each driver as efficiently as possible.

Transport Managers

Transport Managers supervise the Production Drivers so cars, vans and trucks are used as efficiently as possible to transport all the equipment, cast and crew to the many different places they need to go.

Production Driver

A Production Driver, also known as Film Unit Drivers, takes the cast and crew from their hotels to the film location, then back to their hotels at the end of the day’s filming. During filming hours, they remain ready to drive principal actors and key production crew between base camp (with catering, trailers etc) and the nearby camera location where takes are filmed. It’s a job which has long and unsociable hours, with a lot of waiting. On the upside, you spend a lot of the day with other drivers, get a behind the scenes look at exciting productions, and may get to drive someone famous.

Post Production

Film Editor

The Film Editor works with the director to cut the scenes in the best way to tell the story in the most engaging way possible, adding in dialogue, music and sound effects for maximum impact.

Post-Production Runner

The Post-production runner runs errands and completes basic tasks to support the wide range of work in the editing suite.

Visual Effects Department (VFX)

Once filming has ended, any additional visual illusion or trickery added to the footage is called Visual Effects. It has a distinct set of skills, team and processes than you find in the Special Effects Department.

VFX Supervisor

The VFX Supervisor is the Head of the Visual Effects Department. They work with the Director and Producer to design the visual effects required, and manage the Visual Effects team.

VFX Coordinator

The VFX Production Coordinator keeps daily track of the visual effects projects and works closely with other departments, maintaining the flow of information between the production and the artists.

VFX Artist

The VFX Artist creates Visual Effects according to the instructions given, using specialist creative skills. Compositors, modelling and texturing artists, and animation artists are some of the VFX Artist specialisms in demand.

Animation Department

Animation Supervisor

The Animation Supervisor supervises the Animation Department, ensuring all tasks are done correctly within timescale, and finding solutions to problems. They work closely with the VFX Supervisor, designing 2D, stop-motion, 3D hand-drawn and computer-generated animation.

Senior Animator

A Senior Animator is a skilled and experienced animator who mentors animators in the team.


An animator works in a team creating the animation effects required to enhance the production in line with the Director’s vision.

Post-Production Sound Department

In a section further up this page, we outlined the film crew positions (Production Sound Mixer, Boom Operator, Sound Assistant) you’ll find for the onset Sound Department, recording sounds as filming takes place. In this section we look at the wide range of film crew roles involved with sound during the post-production process.

To find out more detail about post-production sound, head over to our article about ADR, Foley Sounds, ReRecording, and SFX Sound Effects.

Sound Designer

The Sound Designer, sometimes also known as the Sound Editor, selects, improves and assembles recorded dialogue, sound effects and music into the final production soundtrack, in accordance with the Director’s instructions.

Supervising Sound Editor

The Supervising Sound Editor manages the Sound Department team members to keep all the elements of sound on track and within budget.

Re-recording mixer

The re-recording mixer takes out all unwanted background noise from the soundtrack, adds the music, sound effects, and background vocals, and clarifies the dialogue.

Dialogue Editor

The Dialogue Editor works with the ADR Mixer to clean up and re record dialogue, then adds it to the soundtrack at the precise moments required for the images on screen.

ADR mixer

The ADR mixer re-records or adds dialogue after filming in a process known as ADR, or Automated Dialogue Replacement.

Foley Artist

A Foley Artist watches and copies one actor on screen, recording relevant sound effects as they move.

Foley Recordist

On a large or complex production, a Foley Recordist assists the Foley Artist while sounds are created.

Foley Mixer

The Foley Mixer, or Foley Recording Mixer, takes the recordings from the Foley Artist session, enhances it in mixing, finally adding it to the soundtrack.

Foley Editor

A production with many or compex foley sounds may need a Foley Editor, ensuring each foley sound is correctly placed audibly and visually throughout each scene.

Sound Effects Editor

The Sounds Effects Editor sources, creates, records and edits the sound effects which are not created by human action, such as thunder or falling bricks.

Sound Effects Recordist

The Sound Effects Recordist identifies which sound effects are needed for specific moments in the film or TV production, works out how to create them or find them in the real world, and takes high quality recordings of the sounds.

Music Department

Music Supervisor

Head of the Music Department, the Music Supervisor selects, commissions and licenses music for the production.

Music Legal

Music Legal services review copyright issues for the sound and particularly music aspects of the production.

Music Editor

The Music Editor synchronises the music with the action and sound on screen, working with the composer to alter parts of the score where necessary.

Music Coordinator

Working closely with the Music Supervisor, the Music Editors and Composers, the Music Coordinator negotiates the commercial music synchronisation rights for distribution, and ensures music royalties are correctly allocated to the relevant parties.


A film composer creates and adapts music scores to meet the Director’s chosen sound landscape for each scene, making it fit neatly to the action, dialogue and sound effects on screen.

Scoring Mixer

The Scoring Mixer records original music and mixes it to its optimum sound. They work out the best placement of the orchestra, microphones, and recording settings, for recording the best quality of the music as the musicians play. Then they spend time working on the recording to create the highly polished final track.

Technical Score Assistant

The Technical Score Assistant, or Score Mix Assistant, helps the Scoring Mixer when recording and mixing live music.

Featured Vocalist

The Featured Vocalist is the person whose voice you hear singing in the production’s music track.


Films can require everything from solo instrumentalists for a tender moment to entire orchestral soundtracks to cohesively run through a storyline.

Synth design

Synthesizers are a useful addition to many soundtracks, but Synth design is carefully done by a specialist who understands the range and quality of synth sound possible and creates sounds in accordance with the director’s vision and visual cues on screen.

Orchestration and Music Preparation

Orchestration and music preparation takes music created by the composer or already in existence, and adapts it to the instruments and editing requirements of the production. Composers may do this to a great extent, but some instruments have particular quirks, or the job can be too much for one person.

Filmmaking Crew Positions

Filmmaking roles are numerous, and often known by different names. But filmmaking crew positions all fit into a film crew hierarchy, especially on larger productions such as a studio feature film, and with experience you’ll soon understand how the different departments and each film crew member works collaboratively to create a seemingly effortless piece of storytelling.